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We breathe 10 billion spores every day, but not die. How does it work?

The moist and warm environment inside the human lungs is great for reproduction of fungi, and they have learned to settle there. Every day a person inhales from 1000 to 10 billion spores, but instead to engage in a ruthless war, our immune system gracefully causes disputes to commit suicide. Alas, this unique mechanism increasingly began to fail and scientists are trying to understand what you can do with it.

When the body of disputes, they are attacked by neutrophils – highly mobile immune cells, the first line of defense. However, they do not fight disputes directly and trigger them to apoptosis or programmed cell death. The underlying mechanism that allows hopelessly corrupt, unable to reproduce the cell, to die “with honor”, freeing up space for others. But the controversy still very much alive and healthy?

To test the hypothesis, the scientists added DNA dispute a special encoding protein “Survivin”, which in human cells blocks the mechanism of programmed death. They infected experimental mice died in agony in their lungs spores survived, germinated and caused serious destruction of the tissues. To build on this success, the scientists injected the mice a drug to block the protein Survivin already and everything was back to normal – neutrophils have once again successfully provoked suicide in the dispute.

Examining how disputes with Survivin resisted the neutrophils, the scientists drew attention to the selection of the enzyme, NADP, a common catalyst for oxidative reactions. Cells dispute think that he was in a stressful environment, on the verge of death, and self-destruct. But the trouble is, the production of this enzyme the human body is fragile and it is increasingly weakened by genetic defects, exposure to drugs, consequences of infections. Such patients at risk – today, scientists are struggling to create alternative way of destroying spores in the lungs of people.
Source — Science

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